Note 2 - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2015
|Notes to Financial Statements|
|Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]||
SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
Principles of Consolidation
Our consolidated financial statements include our accounts, those of our wholly-owned subsidiaries, and our majority-owned Polish subsidiary, PF Medical, after elimination of all significant intercompany accounts and transactions.
Certain prior year amounts have been reclassified to conform with the current year presentation.
Use of Estimates
When the Company prepares financial statements in conformity with accounting standards generally accepted in the United States of America (“US GAAP”), the Company makes estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, as well as, the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. See Notes 8, 11, 12 and 13 for estimates of discontinued operations and environmental liabilities, closure costs, income taxes and contingencies for details on significant estimates.
Restricted cash reflects $35,000 held in escrow for our worker’s compensation policy and proceeds held in escrow resulting from stock subscription agreements executed in connection with the sale of common stock by the Company’s majority-owned Polish subsidiary, PF Medical (see Note 3 - “PF Medical” for further details).
Accounts receivable are customer obligations due under normal trade terms requiring payment within 30 or 60 days from the invoice date based on the customer type (government, broker, or commercial). The carrying amount of accounts receivable is reduced by an allowance for doubtful accounts, which is a valuation allowance that reflects management's best estimate of the amounts that will not be collected. We regularly review all accounts receivable balances that exceed 60 days from the invoice date and based on an assessment of current credit worthiness, estimate the portion, if any, of the balance that will not be collected. This analysis excludes government related receivables due to our past successful experience in their collectability. Specific accounts that are deemed to be uncollectible are reserved at 100% of their outstanding balance. The remaining balances aged over 60 days have a percentage applied by aging category, based on historical experience that allows us to calculate the total allowance required. Once we have exhausted all options in the collection of a delinquent accounts receivable balance, which includes collection letters, demands for payment, collection agencies and attorneys, the account is deemed uncollectible and subsequently written off. The write off process involves approvals from senior management based on required approval thresholds.
The following table set forth the activity in the allowance for doubtful accounts for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands):
Retainage receivables represent amounts that are billed or billable to our customers, but are retained by the customer until completion of the project or as otherwise specified in the contract. Our retainage receivable balances are all current. Retainage receivables of approximately $229,000 and $11,000 as of December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, are included in the accounts receivable balance on the Company’s Consolidated Balance Sheets in the respective periods.
Unbilled receivables are generated by differences between invoicing timing and our proportional performance based methodology used for revenue recognition purposes. As major processing and contract completion phases are completed and the costs are incurred, we recognize the corresponding percentage of revenue. Within our Treatment Segment, we experience delays in processing invoices due to the complexity of the documentation that is required for invoicing, as well as the difference between completion of revenue recognition milestones and agreed upon invoicing terms, which results in unbilled receivables. The timing differences occur for several reasons: partially from delays in the final processing of all wastes associated with certain work orders and partially from delays for analytical testing that is required after we have processed waste but prior to our release of waste for disposal. The tasks relating to these delays usually take several months to complete. As we now have historical data to review the timing of these delays, we realize that certain issues, including, but not limited to, delays at our third party disposal site, can extend collection of some of these receivables greater than twelve months. However, our historical experience suggests that a significant portion of unbilled receivables are ultimately collectible with minimal concession on our part. We, therefore, segregate the unbilled receivables between current and long term.
Unbilled receivables within our Services Segment can result from: (1) revenue recognized by our Earned Value Management program (a program which integrates project scope, schedule, and cost to provide an objective measure of project progress) but invoice milestones have not yet been met and/or (2) contract claims and pending change orders, including Requests for Equitable Adjustments (“REAs”) when work has been performed and collection of revenue is reasonably assured.
Inventories consist of treatment chemicals, saleable used oils, and certain supplies. Additionally, we have replacement parts in inventory, which are deemed critical to the operating equipment and may also have extended lead times should the part fail and need to be replaced. Inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market with cost determined by the first-in, first-out method.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment expenditures are capitalized and depreciated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets for financial statement purposes, while accelerated depreciation methods are principally used for income tax purposes. Generally, asset lives range from ten to forty years for buildings (including improvements and asset retirement costs) and three to seven years for office furniture and equipment, vehicles, and decontamination and processing equipment. Leasehold improvements are capitalized and amortized over the lesser of the term of the lease or the life of the asset. Maintenance and repairs are charged directly to expense as incurred. The cost and accumulated depreciation of assets sold or retired are removed from the respective accounts, and any gain or loss from sale or retirement is recognized in the accompanying consolidated statements of operations. Renewals and improvements, which extend the useful lives of the assets, are capitalized.
In accordance with ASC 360, “Property, Plant, and Equipment”, long-lived assets, such as property, plant and equipment, and purchased intangible assets subject to amortization, are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. Recoverability of assets to be held and used is measured by a comparison of the carrying amount of an asset to estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset. If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, an impairment charge is recognized in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset. Assets to be disposed of are separately presented in the balance sheet and reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value less costs to sell, and are no longer depreciated. The assets and liabilities of a disposal group classified as held for sale would be presented separately in the appropriate asset and liability sections of the balance sheet.
Our depreciation expense totaled approximately $3,246,000 and $3,602,000 in 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Intangible assets consist primarily of the recognized value of the permits required to operate our business. We continually monitor the propriety of the carrying amount of our permits to determine whether current events and circumstances warrant adjustments to the carrying value.
Indefinite-lived intangible assets are not amortized but are reviewed for impairment annually as of October 1, or when events or changes in the business environment indicate that the carrying value may be impaired. If the fair value of the asset is less than the carrying amount, we perform a quantitative test to determine the fair value. The impairment loss, if any, is measured as the excess of the carrying value of the asset over its fair value. Significant judgments are inherent in these analyses and include assumptions for, among other factors,
forecasted revenue, gross margin, growth rate, operating income,
timing of expected future cash flows, and the determination of appropriate long term discount rates.
We performed impairment testing of our permits related to our Treatment reporting unit as of October 1, 2015 and 2014 and determined there was no impairment.
Intangible assets that have definite useful lives are amortized using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives (with the exception of customer relationships which are amortized using an accelerated method) and are excluded from our annual intangible asset valuation review as of October 1. The Company has one definite-lived permit which was excluded from our annual impairment review as noted above. The net carrying value of this one definite-lived permit as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 was approximately $172,000 and $227,000, respectively. Definite-lived intangible assets are also tested for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances suggest impairment might exist.
Research and Development
Operational innovation and technical know-how is very important to the success of our business. Our goal is to discover, develop, and bring to market innovative ways to process waste that address unmet environmental needs and to develop new company service offerings. The Company conducts research internally and also through collaborations with other third parties. R&D costs consist primarily of employee salaries and benefits, laboratory costs, third party fees, and other related costs associated with the development and enhancement of new potential waste treatment processes and new technology and are charged to expense when incurred in accordance with ASC Topic 730, “Research and Development.” The Company’s R&D expenses included approximately $2,114,000 and $759,000 for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively, incurred by our Medical Segment in the R&D of its medical isotope production technology.
Accrued Closure Costs and Asset Retirement Obligations (“ARO”)
Accrued closure costs represent our estimated environmental liability to clean up our facilities as required by our permits, in the event of closure. ASC 410, “Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations” requires that the discounted fair value of a liability for an ARO be recognized in the period in which it is incurred with the associated ARO capitalized as part of the carrying cost of the asset. The recognition of an ARO requires that management make numerous estimates, assumptions and judgments regarding such factors as estimated probabilities, timing of settlements, material and service costs, current technology, laws and regulations, and credit adjusted risk-free rate to be used. This estimate is inflated, using an inflation rate, to the expected time at which the closure will occur, and then discounted back, using a credit adjusted risk free rate, to the present value. ARO’s are included within buildings as part of property and equipment and are depreciated over the estimated useful life of the property. In periods subsequent to initial measurement of the ARO, the Company must recognize period-to-period changes in the liability resulting from the passage of time and revisions to either the timing or the amount of the original estimate of undiscounted cash flow. Increases in the ARO liability due to passage of time impact net income as accretion expense, which is included in cost of goods sold. Changes in costs resulting from changes or expansion at the facilities require adjustment to the ARO liability calculated and are capitalized and charged as depreciation expense, in accordance with the Company’s depreciation policy.
Income taxes are accounted for in accordance with ASC 740, “Income Taxes.” Under ASC 740, the provision for income taxes is comprised of taxes that are currently payable and deferred taxes that relate to the temporary differences between financial reporting carrying values and tax bases of assets and liabilities. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted income tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. Any effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period that includes the enactment date.
ASC 740 requires that deferred income tax assets be reduced by a valuation allowance if it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized. The Company evaluates the realizability of its deferred income tax assets, primarily resulting from impairment loss and net operating loss carryforwards, and adjusts its valuation allowance, if necessary. Once the Company utilizes its net operating loss carryforwards or reverses the related valuation allowance it has recorded on these deferred tax assets, the Company would expect its provision for income tax expense in future periods to reflect an effective tax rate that will be significantly higher than past periods.
ASC 740 sets out a consistent framework for preparers to use to determine the appropriate recognition and measurement of uncertain tax positions. ASC 740 uses a two-step approach wherein a tax benefit is recognized if a position is more-likely-than-not to be sustained. The amount of the benefit is then measured to be the highest tax benefit which is greater than 50% likely to be realized. ASC 740 also sets out disclosure requirements to enhance transparency of an entity’s tax reserves. The Company recognizes accrued interest and income tax penalties related to unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense.
The Company reassesses the validity of our conclusions regarding uncertain income tax positions on a quarterly basis to determine if facts or circumstances have arisen that might cause us to change our judgment regarding the likelihood of a tax position’s sustainability under audit.
The Company’s foreign subsidiaries include PF UK Limited, PF Canada and PF Medical. Assets and liabilities are translated to U.S. dollars at the exchange rate in effect at the balance sheet date and revenue and expenses at the average exchange rate for the period. Foreign currency translation adjustments for these subsidiaries are accumulated as a separate component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) in stockholders’ equity. Gains and losses resulting from foreign currency transactions are recognized in the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company performed services relating to waste generated by the federal government, either directly as a prime contractor or indirectly for others as a subcontractor to the federal government, representing approximately $36,105,000 or 57.9% of total revenue from continuing operations during 2015, as compared to $34,780,000 or 60.9% of total revenue from continuing operations during 2014.
Revenue generated by one of the customers (non-government related and excluded from above) in the Services Segment accounted for 10% or more of the total revenues generated from continuing operations for the twelve months ended December 31, 2015:
As our revenues are project/event based where the completion of one contract with a specific customer may be replaced by another contract with a different customer from year to year, we do not believe the loss of one specific customer from one year to the next will generally have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial condition.
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. The Company maintains cash and cash equivalents with high quality financial institutions, which may exceed Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (“FDIC”) insured amounts from time to time. Concentration of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable is limited due to the Company's large number of customers and their dispersion throughout the United States as well as with the significant amount of work that we perform for the federal government as discussed above.
The Company has one customer whose net outstanding receivable balance represented 16.2% and 13.8% of the Company’s total consolidated net accounts receivable at December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
Gross Receipts Taxes and Other Charges
ASC 605-45, “Revenue Recognition – Principal Agent Consideration” provides guidance regarding the accounting and financial statement presentation for certain taxes assessed by a governmental authority. These taxes and surcharges include, among others, universal service fund charges, sales, use, waste, and some excise taxes. In determining whether to include such taxes in its revenue and expenses, the Company assesses, among other things, whether it is the primary obligor or principal taxpayer for the taxes assessed in each jurisdiction where the Company does business. As the Company is merely a collection agent for the government authority in certain of our facilities, the Company records the taxes on a net bases and excludes them from revenue and cost of services.
Treatment Segment r
evenues.The processing of mixed waste is complex and may take several months or more to complete; as such, the Treatment Segment recognizes revenues using a proportional performance based methodology with its measure of progress towards completion determined based on output measures consisting of milestones achieved and completed. The Treatment Segment has waste tracking capabilities, which it continues to enhance, to allow for better matching of revenues earned to the processing phases achieved. The revenues are recognized as each of the following three processing phases are completed: receipt, treatment/processing and shipment/final disposal. However, based on the processing of certain waste streams, the treatment/processing and shipment/final disposal phases may be combined as sometimes they are completed concurrently. As major processing phases are completed and the costs are incurred, the Treatment Segment recognizes the corresponding percentage of revenue utilizing a proportional performance model. The Treatment Segment experiences delays in processing invoices due to the complexity of the documentation that is required for invoicing, as well as the difference between completion of revenue recognition milestones and agreed upon invoicing terms, which results in unbilled receivables. The timing differences occur for several reasons, partially from delays in the final processing of all wastes associated with certain work orders and partially from delays for analytical testing that is required after the waste is processed waste but prior to our release of the waste for disposal. As the waste moves through these processing phases and revenues are recognized, the correlating costs are expensed as incurred. Although the Treatment Segment uses its best estimates and all available information to accurately determine these disposal expenses, the risk does exist that these estimates could prove to be inadequate in the event the waste requires retreatment. Furthermore, should the waste be returned to the customer, the related receivables could be uncollectible; however, historical experience has not indicated this to be a material uncertainty.
Services Segment revenues. Revenue includes services performed under time and material, fixed price, and cost-reimbursement contracts. Revenues and costs associated with fixed price contracts are recognized using the percentage of completion (efforts expended) method. The Services Segment estimates its percentage of completion based on attainment of project milestones. Revenues and costs associated with time and material contracts are recognized as revenue when earned and costs are incurred.
Under cost reimbursement contracts, the Services Segment is reimbursed for costs incurred plus a certain percentage markup for indirect costs, in accordance with contract provisions. Costs incurred in excess of contract funding may be renegotiated for reimbursement. The Services Segment also earns a fee based on the approved costs to complete the contract. The Services Segment recognizes this fee using the proportion of costs incurred to total estimated contract costs.
Contract costs include all direct labor, material and other non-labor costs and those indirect costs related to contract support, such as depreciation, fringe benefits, overhead labor, supplies, tools, repairs and equipment rental. Provisions for estimated losses on uncompleted contracts are made in the period in which such losses are determined. Changes in job performance, job conditions and estimated profitability, including those arising from contract penalty provisions and final contract settlements, may result in revisions to costs and income and are recognized in the period in which the revisions are determined.
Effective May 2015, the Company moved to a fully-insured group health plan. Previously the Company was self-insured for a significant portion of our group health. Under the self-insured group health plan, the Company estimated expected losses based on statistical analyses of historical industry data, as well as our own estimates based on the Company’s actual historical data to determine required self-insurance reserves. The assumptions were closely reviewed, monitored, and adjusted when warranted by changing circumstances. The estimated accruals for these liabilities could have been affected if actual experience related to the number of claims and cost per claim differed from these assumptions and historical trends. No self-insurance reserves were required as of December 31, 2015 as the Company moved to a fully-insured group health plan. Self-insurance reserve was approximately $397,000 as of December 31, 2014 and was included in Accrued expenses in the accompanying consolidated balance sheets. The total amount expensed for self-insurance during 2015 and 2014 were approximately $868,000 and $2,697,000, respectively, for our continuing operations. Monthly group health insurance premium under the fully-insured group health plan is approximately $220,000.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation in accordance with ASC 718, “Compensation – Stock Compensation”.
ASC 718 requires all stock-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized in the income statement based on their fair values. The Company uses the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair-value of stock-based awards which requires subjective assumptions. Assumptions used to estimate the fair value of stock options granted include the exercise price of the award, the expected term, the expected volatility of the Company’s stock over the option’s expected term, the risk-free interest rate over the option’s expected term, and the expected annual dividend yield.
The Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense using a straight-line amortization method over the requisite service period, which is the vesting period of the stock option grant. As ASC 718 requires that stock-based compensation expense be based on options that are ultimately expected to vest, our stock-based compensation expense is reduced by an estimated forfeiture rate. Our estimated forfeiture rate is generally based on historical trends of actual forfeitures. Forfeiture rates are evaluated, and revised as necessary.
The components of comprehensive income (loss) are net income (loss) and the effects of foreign currency translation adjustments.
Earning (Loss) Per Share
Basic earning (loss) per share is calculated based on the weighted-average number of outstanding common shares during the applicable period. Diluted earning (loss) per share is based on the weighted-average number of outstanding common shares plus the weighted-average number of potential outstanding common shares. In periods where they are anti-dilutive, such amounts are excluded from the calculations of dilutive earnings per share. Earning (loss) per share is computed separately for each period presented.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Certain assets and liabilities are required to be recorded at fair value on a recurring basis, while other assets and liabilities are recorded at fair value on a nonrecurring basis. Fair value is determined based on the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. The three-tier value hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used in the valuation methodologies, is:
Financial instruments include cash and restricted cash (Level 1), accounts receivable, accounts payable, and debt obligations (Level 3). Credit is extended to customers based on an evaluation of a customer’s financial condition and, generally, collateral is not required. At December 31, 2015 and December 31, 2014, the fair value of the Company’s financial instruments approximated their carrying values. The fair value of the Company’s Revolving Credit Facility approximates its carrying value due to the variable interest rate.
The carrying value of our subsidiary's preferred stock is not significantly different than its fair value.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In June 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2014-12, “Compensation Stock – Compensation (Topic 718).” ASU 2014-12 applies to all reporting entities that grant their employees share-based payments in which the terms of the award provide that a performance target that affects vesting could be achieved after the requisite service period. It requires that a performance target that affects vesting and that could be achieved after the requisite service period be treated as a performance condition and follows existing accounting guidance for the treatment of performance conditions. The standard is effective for annual periods and interim periods within those annual periods beginning after December 15, 2015, with early adoption permitted.
The adoption of this ASU in the fourth quarter of 2015 did not have an impact on the Company's results of operations, cash flows or financial position.
In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-02, "Consolidation (Topic 810): Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis.” ASU 2015-02 changes the analysis that a reporting entity must perform to determine whether it should consolidate certain types of legal entities. ASU 2015-02 is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2015. Early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period.
The adoption of this ASU in the fourth quarter of 2015 did not have an impact on the Company's results of operations, cash flows or financial position.
In November 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-17, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes.” ASU 2015-17 simplifies the presentation of deferred taxes by requiring deferred tax assets and liabilities be classified as noncurrent on the balance sheet. The provisions of this ASU are effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2016. Early adoption is permitted. A reporting entity should apply the amendment prospectively or retrospectively. The Company adopted ASU 2015-17 retrospectively in the fourth quarter of 2015. Balances as of December 31, 2014 were restated to conform with 2015 classification, resulting in a decrease in current deferred tax assets of $385,000 and a decrease in long-term deferred tax liabilities of $385,000. Other than these reclassifications, the adoption of ASU 2015-17 had no impact on the Company’s results of operations and cash flows.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards – Not Yet Adopted
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606).” ASU 2014-09 provides a single, comprehensive revenue recognition model for all contracts with customers. The revenue guidance contains principles that an entity will apply to determine the measurement of revenue and timing of when it is recognized. The underlying principle is that an entity will recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers at an amount that the entity expects to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services.
In July 2015, the FASB deferred the effective date to annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 (including interim reporting periods within those periods). Early adoption is permitted to the original effective date of December 15, 2016 (including interim reporting periods within those periods). The ASU may be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented or retrospectively with the cumulative effect recognized as of the date of initial application.
The Company is still evaluating the potential impact of adopting this guidance on our financial statements.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, “Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern.” ASU 2014-15 requires management to assess an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern, and to provide related footnote disclosure in certain circumstances. The new standard will be effective for all entities in the first annual period ending after December 15, 2016. The Company is still evaluating the potential impact of adopting this guidance on our financial statements.
In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-11,
“Inventory (Topic 330): Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory.” ASU
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, “Leases (Topic 842)”. Under ASU 2016-02, an entity will be required to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on its balance sheet and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. ASU 2016-02 offers specific accounting guidance for a lessee, a lessor and sale and leaseback transactions. Lessees and lessors are required to disclose qualitative and quantitative information about leasing arrangements to enable a user of the financial statements to assess the amount, timing and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. For public companies, ASU 2016-02 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that reporting period, and requires a modified retrospective adoption, with early adoption permitted. The Company is still evaluating the potential impact of adopting this guidance on our financial statements.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef